SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: THE STATE OF THE PROBLEM IN UKRAINE AND THE WORLD
Summary. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains an understudied disease, despite the large number of studies. Every year, more and more data appear, which deepens the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, opens up new opportunities for diagnostics and treatment. The aim of the study is to highlight new and generalize previously known data on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of SLE, as well as to actualize a deeper study of this problem in Ukraine. Materials and methods. A scientific search was carried out among printed and electronic publications, scientific search databases. Methods of comparison, analysis and generalization of data was applied. Results. The article presents the levels of incidence and prevalence of SLE in different countries. The dependence of statistical indicators on age, sex, ethnicity and race is also considered. Modern ideas about the etiological factors and pathogenesis of the disease are described. The publication contains new classification criteria for SLE, developed by the European Antirheumatic League (EULAR) in collaboration with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) in 2019. Their feature in comparison with previous versions is the presence of an input criterion — the titer of antinuclear antibodies 1:80 and more, the assignment of scores according to the importance and distribution by clinical and immunological domains. The basic principles of drug therapy are also briefly considered — the use of glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine, cytostatics (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide), immunobiological drugs (belimumab, rituximab and a number of others currently undergoing clinical trials). Conclusions. In Ukraine, in comparison with European countries and the United States, there are significantly lower levels of incidence and prevalence of SLE, which is most likely due to insufficient diagnostics of patients with this pathology. This requires a deeper study of the problem in our country and development of methods to improve the diagnostics and treatment of SLE.
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