RAYNAUD’S PHENOMENON AND DIGITAL ULCERS IN SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY QUESTIONS AND MANAGEMENT AT THE PRESENT STAGE
Summary. The article presents modern views on the mechanisms of development of vasculopathy (the Raynaud’s phenomenon and digital ulcers) associated with systemic sclerosis. Clinical, capillaroscopic and immunological predictors of development and severe course of vasculopathies are described. The lesions of the lungs, heart and esophagus, the long course of the Raynaud’s phenomenon, diffuse skin lesions, early onset of the disease, high activity, late onset of vasodilating therapy are potential factors in the development and progression of digital ulcers. The presence of antibodies to topoisomerase (anti-Scl-70), an abnormal picture of nail capillaroscopy, an increase in endothelin-1 levels and a low level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are serological markers of severe vasculopathy. The article presents modern approaches to the treatment of the phenomenon of Raynaud and digital ulcers, as well as an algorithm for long-term patient management. Management of patients with Reynaud’s phenomenon, digital ulcers includes non-pharmacological, pharmacological approaches and surgical intervention. Vasoactive methods of therapy are central to the pharmacological treatment of vascular complications of systemic sclerosis.
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