Nikolsky I.S.

Summary. The purpose of the study is to systematize data on the formation of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis and modern approaches to immunotherapy. Materials and methods. The paper presents topical issues of the phased interaction of the virus with elements of natural and adaptive immunity. Approaches to immunotherapy are covered on the basis of own research and informative search in Medline and PubMed, data in the periodical world scientific literature and methodological recommendations of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Results and discussion. The immunopathogenesis of infection is formed in natural immunity response with the participation of cells that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. As a result, an inflammatory reaction develops, induced by synthesized of pro-inflammatory cells cytokines, which is necessary for the activation of adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity carries out an antiviral reaction using the functional activity of various subpopulations of T- and B-lymphocytes. At the same time, stimulation of natural immunity cells can take on an undesirable excessive and systemic character. Hyperactivation of the NLRP 3 inflamasome can occur with a powerful production of pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL 1β, IL 6, TNFα, and many others. They can induce inflammation in the lungs, the development of which leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, often fatal. Immunotherapy includes the use of antiviral antibody preparations of vaccinated or recovered people, biotechnological preparations of monoclonal antiviral and antireceptor antibodies. Further progress in immunotherapy is associated with cell therapy with multipotent stromal and other stem cells. Conclusion. Uncovering the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 opens up new opportunities for the development of effective therapeutic agents based on immunobiotechnology and cell therapy.

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